Prostatic malakoplakia: clinicopathological assessment of a multi-institutional series of 49 patients

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Prostatic malakoplakia (MP) is rare, with only case reports and small series (< five patients) available in the literature. In this study we analysed an international multi-institutional series of 49 patients with prostatic MP to more clearly define its clinicopathological features. The median age was 67 years and the median serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 7.5 ng/ml. MP was clinically manifest in most cases (28 of 45 patients with data available, 62%). Of 43 patients with detailed clinical history available, 21 (49%) had concurrent or metachronous malignancies (including prostate cancer). Diabetes or insulin resistance was present in 11 patients (26%). Additionally, three patients had a history of solid organ transplantation and one had HIV. Of note, six of 34 patients (18%) without concurrent prostate cancer had an abnormal digital rectal examination and/or lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) scores 4-5. The initial diagnosis was made on core biopsies (25 of 49, 51%), transurethal resection specimens (12 of 49, 24%), radical prostatectomies (10 of 49, 20%), Holmium-laser enucleation (one of 49, 2%) and cystoprostatectomy (one of 49, 2%). Tissue involvement was more commonly diffuse or multifocal (40 of 49, 82%). Von Kossa and periodic acid-Schiff stains were positive in 35 of 38 (92%) and 26 of 27 lesions (96%), respectively. Of note, two cases were received in consultation by the authors with a preliminary diagnosis of mesenchymal tumour/tumour of the specialised prostatic stroma. The present study suggests that prostatic MP is often associated with clinical findings that may mimic those of prostate cancer in a subset of patients. Moreover, MP may be found incidentally in patients with concurrent prostate cancer.

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ePub ahead of print