Gastric Perineurioma: A Rare Entity with Molecular Analysis and Literature Review

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International journal of surgical pathology


BACKGROUND: Perineuriomas of the gastrointestinal tract are benign neoplasms that commonly develop in the distal colon and are identified during screening colonoscopy; however, perineuriomas of the stomach are exceedingly rare and less frequently identified. Differentiating gastric perineuriomas from other more serious gastric neoplasms is critical to avoid unnecessarily aggressive treatments. Thus far, only six patients with gastric perineurioma have been described, and the molecular characterization of this entity is still lacking.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 52-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain and gastric acid reflux and was found to have a 1.5 cm subepithelial gastric neoplasm composed of bland spindle cells displacing the gastric glands with no cytologic atypia or mitotic activity, suggesting a benign spindle cell neoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reactivity for perineurial markers glucose transporter-1 and epithelial membrane antigen, consistent with benign gastric perineurioma. DNA extracted from the tissue was used for a capture-based target sequence enrichment panel followed by Illumina next-generation sequencing and targeted bioinformatic analysis for oncogenic alterations within defined disease-associated target regions. No sequence variants in the BRAF gene were identified.

CONCLUSIONS: This rare case of gastric perineurioma helps solidify our understanding of how to discern various types of gastric neoplasms through traditional laboratory analysis alongside genetic sequencing approaches. Although extremely rare, gastric perineurioma should be kept in the differential diagnosis when assessing spindle cell gastric tumors to avoid unnecessary therapies, and physicians should understand the molecular characteristics of benign versus malignant tumors.

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ePub ahead of print