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Infect Dis Ther


BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. More in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data suggest that vancomycin (VAN) or daptomycin (DAP) combination therapy with β-lactams (BL) improves outcomes of MRSA infections. We hypothesize that BL combination with VAN or DAP would reduce the odds of clinical failure compared to VAN or DAP monotherapy.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of adult patients ≥ 18 years treated with VAN or DAP for MRSA BSI from 2006 to 2019 at Detroit Medical Center. Combination therapy (CT) was defined as VAN or DAP plus any BL for ≥ 24 h within 72 h of index culture. Monotherapy (MT) was defined as ≥ 72 h VAN or DAP within 72 h of index culture and no BL for ≥ 24 h up to 7 days following VAN/DAP initiation. Primary outcome was composite endpoint of clinical failure defined as: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 60-day recurrence, or (3) persistent bacteremia (PB). PB was defined as bacteremia > 5 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between CT and the primary outcome.

RESULTS: Overall, 597 patients were included in this analysis, 153 in the MT group and 444 in the CT group. CT was independently associated with reduced odds of clinical failure (adjusted odds ratio, 0.523; 95% confidence interval, 0.348-0.787). The composite endpoint was driven by 60-day recurrence and PB but not 30-day mortality. There were no difference in adverse events including nephrotoxicity between the two study arms.

CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adults with MRSA BSI, CT with any BL was independently associated with improved clinical outcomes and may ultimately be selected as preferred therapy.

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