Impact of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam vs. Best Alternative Therapy on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Holger DJ, Rebold NS, Alosaimy S, Morrisette T, Lagnf A, Belza AC, Coyne AJK, El Ghali A, Veve MP, and Rybak MJ. Impact of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam vs. Best Alternative Therapy on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Infect Dis Ther 2022.
Infect Dis Ther
INTRODUCTION: Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and difficult-to-treat (DTR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa are increasingly challenging to combat. Ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T) is a novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination now commonly used to treat MDR and XDR P. aeruginosa. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain the most common source of infection caused by MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa. Comparative effectiveness studies to date have been limited by the type of comparator agents (i.e., aminoglycosides and polymyxins) and the inclusion of multiple infection sources (i.e., urinary tract, abdominal, skin and soft tissue, etc.).
METHODS: We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of adults with LRTI caused by MDR or XDR P. aeruginosa admitted from January 2014 to December 2019. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes between patients who received C/T (n = 118) versus best alternative therapy (n = 88). The primary outcome was clinical failure, defined as 30-day mortality and/or an adverse drug reaction on antibiotic therapy.
RESULTS: Two hundred and six patients met inclusion criteria. The C/T group had a significantly higher proportion of XDR P. aeruginosa and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP). After multivariable logistic regression, C/T treatment was independently associated with a 73.3% reduction in clinical failure compared to those who received best alternative therapy (P < 0.001). The number needed to harm with best alternative therapy was 3.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that C/T is a safe and effective therapeutic regimen for patients with MDR and XDR P. aeruginosa LRTI.
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