Steno-sphere: Navigating the enigmatic world of emerging multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen and frequent cause of serious nosocomial infections. Patient populations at greatest risk for these infections include the immunocompromised and those with chronic respiratory illnesses and prior antibiotic exposure, notably to carbapenems. Its complex virulence and resistance profile drastically limit available antibiotics, and incomplete breakpoint and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data to inform dose optimization further complicates therapeutic approaches. Clinical comparison data of first-line agents, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), quinolones, and minocycline, are limited to conflicting observational data with no clear benefit of a single agent or combination therapy. Newer antibiotic approaches, including cefiderocol and aztreonam- avibactam, are promising alternatives for extensively drug-resistant isolates; however, clinical outcomes data are needed. The potential clinical utility of bacteriophage for compassionate use in treating S. maltophilia infections remains to be determined since data is limited to in-vitro and sparse in-vivo work. This article provides a review of available literature for S. maltophilia infection management focused on related epidemiology, resistance mechanisms, identification, susceptibility testing, antimicrobial PK/PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies.

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ePub ahead of print