Leveraging stewardship to promote ceftriaxone use in severe infections with low- and no-risk AmpC Enterobacterales

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Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy


AmpC β-lactamases are associated with development of ceftriaxone resistance despite initial in vitro susceptibility, but the risk of AmpC derepression is not equal among Enterobacterales. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an AmpC stewardship intervention on the definitive treatment of low- and no-risk Enterobacterales. This was an IRB-approved, single pre-test, post-test quasi-experiment at a 5-hospital system. An AmpC stewardship intervention was implemented in July 2022 and included prescriber education, the removal of microbiology comments indicating potential for ceftriaxone resistance on therapy, and the modification of a blood PCR comment for Serratia marcescens to recommend ceftriaxone. Adults ≥18 years pre-intervention (July 2021 to December 2021) and post-intervention (July 2022 to December 2022) who received ≥72 hours of inpatient definitive therapy and had non-urine cultures growing low- and no-risk organisms (S. marcescens, Providencia spp., Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter amalonaticus, or Morganella morganii) were included. The primary endpoint was definitive treatment with ceftriaxone. A total of 224 patients were included; 115 (51%) in pre-intervention and 109 (49%) in post-intervention. Definitive ceftriaxone therapy was prescribed more frequently after intervention [6 (5%) vs 72 (66%), P < 0.001]. After adjustment for critical illness, patients in the post-group were more likely to receive definitive ceftriaxone (adjOR, 34.7; 95% CI, 13.9-86.6). The proportion of patients requiring retreatment was 18 (15%) and 11 (10%) for pre- and post-intervention patients (P = 0.22), and ceftriaxone resistance within 30 days occurred in 5 (4%) and 2 (2%) patients in the pre- and post-group (P = 0.45). An antimicrobial stewardship intervention was associated with increased ceftriaxone prescribing and similar patient outcomes for low- and no-risk AmpC Enterobacterales.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Humans; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Ceftriaxone; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriaceae Infections; beta-Lactamases; Bacterial Proteins; Gammaproteobacteria; Serratia marcescens; Microbial Sensitivity Tests

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ePub ahead of print





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