Brincidofovir as Salvage Therapy for Adenovirus Disease in Intestinal Transplant Recipients

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BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that typically cause mild self-limiting respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal infections. In immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients, the infection can be severe, with dissemination and multiorgan failure. In intestinal transplant recipients, the incidence is as high as 57%. To our knowledge, no standardized guidelines or U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications exist for the treatment of adenovirus disease.

AIMS: We describe two isolated intestinal transplant recipients who developed adenovirus disease (viremia with viral enteritis) that was managed with a new experimental drug, brincidofovir (an oral lipid conjugate prodrug of cidofovir), as salvage therapy.

RESULTS: The first patient was a 44-year-old woman who developed adenoviral enteritis 1 month after transplantation, which resolved with ribavirin therapy. Two weeks later, the infection recurred, and brincidofovir was initiated. While receiving this therapy for 3 months, she developed severe acute rejection, which was managed with rabbit antithymocyte globulin followed by infliximab. Eventually, complete resolution of the rejection and adenoviral enteritis was achieved. At 12 months posttransplantation, the patient was healthy and tolerating enteral feeding. The second patient was a 28-year-old man who had undergone isolated intestinal transplantation 6 years before he presented with generalized weakness and an increased ostomy output; he was diagnosed with adenoviral enteritis. Maintenance immunosuppression was reduced, and brincidofovir was started. The infection resolved with a month of therapy. Six months after the infection, he was healthy and tolerating enteral feeding.

CONCLUSION: This is the first publication, to our knowledge, to describe two cases in which brincidofovir was used to successfully treat adenovirus infection in intestinal transplant recipients. Thus, these cases demonstrate that brincidofovir appears to be a safe and effective option in the management of adenoviral enteritis in these patients.

Medical Subject Headings

Adenoviridae Infections; Adult; Antiviral Agents; Cytosine; Female; Humans; Immunocompromised Host; Male; Organophosphonates; Salvage Therapy; Transplant Recipients

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