Association between vancomycin day 1 exposure profile and outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis.
Casapao AM, Lodise TP, Davis S, Claeys KC, Kullar R, Levine DP, and Rybak MJ. The association between the vancomycin day 1 exposure profile and outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015;59(6):2978-85.
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Given the critical importance of early appropriate therapy, a retrospective cohort (2002 to 2013) was performed at the Detroit Medical Center to evaluate the association between the day 1 vancomycin exposure profile and outcomes among patients with MRSA infective endocarditis (IE). The day 1 vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) and the minimum concentration at 24 h (Cmin 24) was estimated for each patient using the Bayesian procedure in ADAPT 5, an approach shown to accurately predict the vancomycin exposure with low bias and high precision with limited pharmacokinetic sampling. Initial MRSA isolates were collected and vancomycin MIC was determined by broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest. The primary outcome was failure, defined as persistent bacteremia (≥7 days) or 30-day attributable mortality. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to determine the vancomycin exposure variables associated with an increased probability of failure. In total, 139 patients met study criteria; 76.3% had right-sided IE, 16.5% had left-sided IE, and 7.2% had both left and right-sided IE. A total of 89/139 (64%) experienced failure by composite definition. In the CART analysis, failure was more pronounced in patients with an AUC0-24/MIC as determined by BMD of ≤600 relative to those with AUC0-24/MIC as determined by BMD of >600 (69.8% versus 54.7%, respectively, P = 0.073). In the logistic regression analysis, an AUC/MIC as determined by BMD of ≤600 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 5.37; P = 0.047) was independently associated with failure. Given the retrospective nature of the present study, further prospective studies are required but these data suggest that patients with an AUC0-24/MIC as determined by BMD of ≤600 present an increased risk of failure.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Area Under Curve; Endocarditis, Bacterial; Female; Humans; Male; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Middle Aged; Retrospective Studies; Vancomycin