Jorgensen SCJ, Murray KP, Lagnf AM, Melvin S, Bhatia S, Shamim MD, Smith JR, Brade KD, Simon SP, Nagel J, Williams KS, Ortwine JK, Veve MP, Truong J, Huang DB, Davis SL, and Rybak MJ. A Multicenter Evaluation of Vancomycin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections. Infect Dis Ther 2020.
Infect Dis Ther
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the real-world incidence of and risk factors for vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (V-AKI) in hospitalized adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI).
METHODS: Retrospective, observational, cohort study at ten U.S. medical centers between 2015 and 2019. Hospitalized patients treated with vancomycin (≥ 72 h) for ABSSSI and ≥ one baseline AKI risk factor were eligible. Patients with end-stage kidney disease, on renal replacement therapy or AKI at baseline, were excluded. The primary outcome was V-AKI by the vancomycin guidelines criteria.
RESULTS: In total, 415 patients were included. V-AKI occurred in 39 (9.4%) patients. Independent risk factors for V-AKI were: chronic alcohol abuse (aOR 4.710, 95% CI 1.929-11.499), no medical insurance (aOR 3.451, 95% CI 1.310-9.090), ICU residence (aOR 4.398, 95% CI 1.676-11.541), Gram-negative coverage (aOR 2.926, 95% CI 1.158-7.392) and vancomycin duration (aOR 1.143, 95% CI 1.037-1.260). Based on infection severity and comorbidities, 34.7% of patients were candidates for oral antibiotics at baseline and 39.3% had non-purulent cellulitis which could have been more appropriately treated with a beta-lactam. Patients with V-AKI had significantly longer hospital lengths of stay (9 vs. 6 days, p = 0.001), higher 30-day readmission rates (30.8 vs. 9.0%, p < 0.001) and increased all-cause 30-day mortality (5.1 vs. 0.3%, p = 0.024) CONCLUSIONS: V-AKI occurred in approximately one in ten ABSSSI patients and may be largely prevented by preferential use of oral antibiotics whenever possible, using beta-lactams for non-purulent cellulitis and limiting durations of vancomycin therapy.
ePub ahead of print