Document Type

Article

Publication Date

3-1-2021

Publication Title

The American journal of gastroenterology

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Despite recognized differences in the rates of cardiovascular and renal disease between men and women in the general population, studies of the downstream effects of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C (HCV) have not investigated differences in outcomes based on sex. We analyzed sex differences in risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and ischemic stroke by treatment and response in a large US-based multisite cohort of HCV patients.

METHODS: Observation started at the HCV diagnosis date (untreated) or last antiviral treatment start (treated). Treatment selection bias was addressed using an inverse probability-weighting approach. We estimated the effect of treatment on the cumulative incidence of outcomes using the Fine-Gray method (subdistribution hazard ratios [sHR] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]). Death was a competing risk.

RESULTS: Roughly 40% of 15,295 HCV patients were women. After controlling for other risk factors, sustained virological response (SVR) (interferon-based [IFN] or direct-acting antiviral [DAA]) significantly reduced risk of all outcomes, particularly among female patients. Female patients who achieved SVR after IFN-based treatment had significantly lower risk of ACS compared with male patients with SVR from either treatment type (sHR 0.45 [95% CI 0.35-0.59] vs 0.81 [95% CI 0.69-0.96, for DAA SVR] and sHR 0.72 [95% 0.62, 0.85, for IFN SVR]). Successful treatment seemed to be most protective against ESRD; female patients who achieved SVR were at 66%-68% lower risk than untreated patients (sHR 0.32 [95% CI 0.17-0.60 for DAA SVR] and 0.34 [95% CI 0.20-0.58 for IFN SVR]), whereas men were at 38%-42% lower risk (sHR 0.62 [95% CI 0.46-0.85 for DAA SVR] and 0.58 [95% CI 0.43-0.76 for IFN SVR]). IFN treatment failure significantly increased risk of all outcomes by 50%-100% among female patients. Compared with no treatment, female patients who experienced IFN treatment failure were at 63% increased risk of ACS (sHR 1.63 [95% CI 1.35-1.96]), almost twice the risk of ESRD (sHR 1.95 [95% CI 1.43-2.66]) and 51% increased risk of stroke (sHR 1.49 [95%CI 1.11-2.00]).

DISCUSSION: SVR reduced the risk of extrahepatic complications, particularly in females. The significantly increased risk associated with IFN TF in women-a subset who represented roughly 10% of that group-underscores the importance of prioritizing these patients for DAA treatment irrespective of the fibrosis stage.

Medical Subject Headings

Acute Coronary Syndrome; Antiviral Agents; Female; Hepatitis C; Humans; Incidence; Ischemic Stroke; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Male; Middle Aged; Risk; Sex Factors; Sustained Virologic Response; Treatment Outcome

PubMed ID

33399360

Volume

116

Issue

3

First Page

576

Last Page

583

Share

COinS
 
 

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.