Fonseca W, Asai N, Yagi K, Malinczak CA, Savickas G, Johnson CC, Murray S, Zoratti EM, Lukacs NW, Li J, and Schuler Iv CF. COVID-19 Modulates Inflammatory and Renal Markers That May Predict Hospital Outcomes among African American Males. Viruses 2021; 13(12).
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: African Americans and males have elevated risks of infection, hospitalization, and death from SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with other populations. We report immune responses and renal injury markers in African American male patients hospitalized for COVID-19.
METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of 56 COVID-19 infected hospitalized African American males 50+ years of age selected from among non-intensive care unit (ICU) and ICU status patients. Demographics, hospitalization-related variables, and medical history were collected from electronic medical records. Plasma samples collected close to admission (≤2 days) were evaluated for cytokines and renal markers; results were compared to a control group (n = 31) and related to COVID-19 in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: Among COVID-19 patients, eight (14.2%) suffered in-hospital mortality; seven (23.3%) in the ICU and one (3.8%) among non-ICU patients. Interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-33 were elevated at admission in COVID-19 patients in comparison with controls. IL-6, IL-18, MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, IL-33, GST, and osteopontin were upregulated at admission in ICU patients in comparison with controls. In addition to clinical factors, MCP-1 and GST may provide incremental value for risk prediction of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Qualitatively similar inflammatory responses were observed in comparison to other populations reported in the literature, suggesting non-immunologic factors may account for outcome differences. Further, we provide initial evidence for cytokine and renal toxicity markers as prognostic factors for COVID-19 in-hospital mortality among African American males.
Medical Subject Headings
African Americans; Aged; Biomarkers; COVID-19; Cytokines; Hospital Mortality; Hospitalization; Hospitals; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Kidney; Male; Michigan; Middle Aged; Retrospective Studies; SARS-CoV-2