Title

Correlates of whole blood metal concentrations among reproductive-aged Black women

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

9-14-2022

Publication Title

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Metals may influence reproductive health, but few studies have investigated correlates of metal body burden among reproductive-aged women outside of pregnancy. Furthermore, while there is evidence of racial disparities in exposure to metals among U.S. women, there is limited research about correlates of metal body burden among Black women.

OBJECTIVE: To identify correlates of whole blood metal concentrations among reproductive-aged Black women.

METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a cohort of 1664 Black women aged 23-35 years in Detroit, Michigan, 2010-2012. We collected blood samples and questionnaire data. We measured concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer-triple quadrupole and total mercury using Direct Mercury Analyzer-80. We used multivariable linear regression models to identify sociodemographic, environmental, reproductive, and dietary correlates of individual metal concentrations.

RESULTS: In adjusted models, age was positively associated with multiple metals, including arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Education and income were inversely associated with cadmium and lead. Current smoking was strongly, positively associated with cadmium and lead. Alcohol intake in the past year was positively associated with arsenic, barium, copper, lead, mercury, vanadium, and zinc. Having pumped gasoline in the past 24 h was positively associated with cadmium, chromium, and molybdenum. Having lived in an urban area for the majority of residence in Michigan was positively associated with arsenic, lead, and nickel. Higher water intake in the past year was positively associated with several metals, including lead. Fish intake in the past year was positively associated with arsenic, cesium, and mercury. We also observed associations with body mass index, season, and other environmental, reproductive, and dietary factors.

SIGNIFICANCE: We identified potential sources of exposure to metals among reproductive-aged Black women. Our findings improve understanding of exposures to metals among non-pregnant reproductive-aged women, and can inform policies in support of reducing disparities in exposures.

IMPACT STATEMENT: There are racial disparities in exposures to metals. We analyzed correlates of blood metal concentrations among reproductive-aged Black women in the Detroit, Michigan metropolitan area. We identified sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, environmental, reproductive, and dietary correlates of metal body burden. Age was positively associated with several metals. Education and income were inversely associated with cadmium and lead, indicating socioeconomic disparities. We identified potential exposure sources of metals among reproductive-aged Black women, including smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, pumping gasoline, living in an urban area, and intake of alcohol, water, fish, and rice.

PubMed ID

36104525

ePublication

ePub ahead of print

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