Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemical mixtures and uterine leiomyomata in the study of environment, lifestyle and fibroids (SELF)

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BACKGROUND: Results of studies investigating associations between individual endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and incidence of uterine leiomyomata (UL), a hormone-dependent gynecological condition, have been inconsistent. However, few studies have evaluated simultaneous exposure to a mixture of EDCs with UL incidence.

METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort analysis (n = 708) of data from the Study of the Environment, Lifestyle and Fibroids (SELF), a prospective cohort study. Participants were aged 23-35 years at enrollment, had an intact uterus, and identified as Black or African American. We measured biomarker concentrations of 21 non-persistent EDCs, including phthalates, phenols, parabens, and triclocarban, in urine collected at baseline, 20-month, and 40-month clinic visits. We ascertained UL incidence and characteristics using ultrasounds at baseline and approximately every 20 months through 60 months. We used probit Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR-P) to evaluate joint associations between EDC mixtures with cumulative UL incidence. We estimated the mean difference in the probit of UL incidence over the study period, adjusting for baseline age, education, years since last birth, parity, smoking status and body mass index. We converted probit estimates to odds ratios for ease of interpretation.

RESULTS: We observed that urinary concentrations of the overall EDC mixture were inversely associated with UL incidence in the overall mixtures model, with the strongest inverse associations at the 70th percentile of all biomarkers compared with their 50th percentile (odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.36, 0.96). Strongest contributors to the joint association for the mixture were bisphenol S (BPS), ethyl paraben (EPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), which each demonstrated inverse associations except for MECPP. There was suggestive evidence of an interaction between MECPP and EPB.

CONCLUSION: In this prospective ultrasound study, we observed evidence of an inverse association between the overall mixture of urinary biomarker concentrations of non-persistent EDCs with UL incidence.

Medical Subject Headings

Female; Humans; Adult; Leiomyoma; Endocrine Disruptors; Prospective Studies; Young Adult; Phenols; Phthalic Acids; Environmental Exposure; Life Style; Parabens; Carbanilides; Environmental Pollutants; Incidence; Biomarkers; Uterine Neoplasms; Bayes Theorem; Cohort Studies

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