Husnain SMN, and Shojaee S. Hepatic Hydrothorax and Congestive Heart Failure Induced Pleural Effusion. Clin Chest Med 2021; 42(4):625-635.
Clinics in chest medicine
Pleural effusions (PEs) are frequently encountered in routine clinical practice, affecting more than 3000 people per million population every year. Heart and liver failures are two of the most common causes of transudative PE. Because these effusions have nonmalignant etiologies, they are commonly referred to as benign effusions despite of the poor prognosis they foretell in their refractory stages. Like malignant effusions, symptom management is important and plays a significant role in palliation when these effusions become refractory to medical therapy.
Medical Subject Headings
Heart Failure; Humans; Hydrothorax; Liver; Pleural Effusion; Pleural Effusion, Malignant