Restenosis Following Bronchoscopic Airway Stenting for Complex Tracheal Stenosis

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J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol


BACKGROUND: Nonsurgical patients with complex postintubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) and tracheostomy-associated tracheal stenosis (PTTS) often require airway stenting. However, the optimal approach is unknown. Identifying patients at higher risk for restenosis after stent removal may allow the treating physician to individualize the vigilance and duration of airway stenting, and help optimize outcomes.

METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on all patients with complex PITS and/or PTTS treated with protocolized bronchoscopic airway stenting over a consecutive 16-year period. The primary outcome analyzed was restenosis rate at 1 year after stent removal. Predictors for restenosis and factors influencing risk for death during stent therapy were also assessed.

RESULTS: Of the 181 subjects treated with silicone airway stenting, 128 were available for analysis of the primary outcome. Restenosis by 1 year after stent removal occurred in 58%. Independent predictors for restenosis were coexisting diabetes [odd ratio (OR)=3.10, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-9.24; P=0.04], morbid obesity (OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.20-8.17; P=0.02), and occurrence of stent-associated complications requiring bronchoscopic management (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.12-4.03; P=0.02). The overall mortality during the initial stenting period was 14%, and a silicone Y-stent was associated with a higher risk of death (OR=3.58, 95% CI=1.40-9.14; P=0.008).

CONCLUSION: Tracheal restenosis after silicone stent therapy for complex PITS and PTTS is common and more likely to occur in patients with diabetes, morbid obesity, and frequent stent-associated complications. Mortality risk during stent therapy is not negligible, and a Y-stent should be utilized only after careful consideration. These findings may be incorporated into the approach to bronchoscopic airway stenting in these patients.

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ePub ahead of print