Lung cancer screening: detected nodules, what next?
Chen Y, Khemasuwan D, Simoff MJ. Lung cancer screening: detected nodules, what next? Lung Cancer Manag. 2016 Dec;5(4):173-184.
Lung Cancer Manag
Since the success of the NLST study, the incorporation of lung cancer screening programs into current academic programs has been growing. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services have acknowledged the importance and potential impact of lung cancer screening by making it a reimbursable study. Based on Fleischner Society Guidelines, many nodules will require follow-up imaging. The remainder of those nodules will need tissue to appropriately make the diagnosis. The use of bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy has been a standard technique for many years, but as smaller nodules need to be assessed, more advanced tools, such as endobronchial ultrasound and electromagnetic navigation are now improving the yield on the diagnosis of these smaller peripheral nodules. As electromagnetic navigation and peripheral ultrasound are significant changes from practice only 10 years ago, further advancements in the technology, such as bronchoscopic robots and advanced optical imaging tools, that are becoming available, need to be assessed as to their possible incorporation into the evaluation of peripheral nodules. The ceiling to the diagnosis of these small lesions remains at 70-75%; techniques and tools need to be used to improve upon this to maximize the impact of lung cancer screening and minimize the risk to patients.