Anaerobic antibiotic usage for pneumonia in the medical intensive care unit.

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Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia is a common admitting diagnosis in the intensive care unit (ICU). When aspiration is suspected, antibiotics to cover anaerobes are frequently used, but in the absence of clear risk factors, current guidelines have questioned their role. It is unknown how frequently these guidelines are followed.

METHODS: We conducted a single-centre observational study on practice patterns of anaerobic antibiotic use in consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with aspiration pneumonia (Asp), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP).

RESULTS: A total of 192 patients were studied (Asp: 20, HCAP: 107, CAP: 65). Overall, 59 patients received anaerobic antibiotics (Asp: 90%, HCAP: 28%, CAP 17%) but a significant proportion of these patients did not meet criteria to receive them. Inappropriate anaerobic antibiotic use was 12/20 for Asp, 27/107 for HCAP and 9/65 for CAP. Mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0) score and a diagnosis of Asp were predictors of receiving inappropriate anaerobic antibiotics. Receiving inappropriate anaerobic antibiotics was associated with a longer ICU length of stay (LOS; 7 days (interquartile range (IQR): 7-21) vs 4 days (IQR:2-9), P = 0.017).

CONCLUSION: For patients in the ICU admitted with pneumonia, there is a high occurrence of inappropriately prescribed anaerobic antibiotics, the use of which was associated with a longer ICU LOS.

Medical Subject Headings

Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bacteria, Anaerobic; Community-Acquired Infections; Cross Infection; Female; Guideline Adherence; Hospitalization; Humans; Inappropriate Prescribing; Intensive Care Units; Male; Middle Aged; Pneumonia; Pneumonia, Aspiration; Retrospective Studies; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; United States

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