Title

Adaptive radiotherapy for NSCLC patients: utilizing the principle of energy conservation to evaluate dose mapping operations.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

6-7-2017

Publication Title

Physics in medicine and biology

Abstract

Tumor regression during the course of fractionated radiotherapy confounds the ability to accurately estimate the total dose delivered to tumor targets. Here we present a new criterion to improve the accuracy of image intensity-based dose mapping operations for adaptive radiotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Six NSCLC patients were retrospectively investigated in this study. An image intensity-based B-spline registration algorithm was used for deformable image registration (DIR) of weekly CBCT images to a reference image. The resultant displacement vector fields were employed to map the doses calculated on weekly images to the reference image. The concept of energy conservation was introduced as a criterion to evaluate the accuracy of the dose mapping operations. A finite element method (FEM)-based mechanical model was implemented to improve the performance of the B-Spline-based registration algorithm in regions involving tumor regression. For the six patients, deformed tumor volumes changed by 21.2  ±  15.0% and 4.1  ±  3.7% on average for the B-Spline and the FEM-based registrations performed from fraction 1 to fraction 21, respectively. The energy deposited in the gross tumor volume (GTV) was 0.66 Joules (J) per fraction on average. The energy derived from the fractional dose reconstructed by the B-spline and FEM-based DIR algorithms in the deformed GTV's was 0.51 J and 0.64 J, respectively. Based on landmark comparisons for the 6 patients, mean error for the FEM-based DIR algorithm was 2.5  ±  1.9 mm. The cross-correlation coefficient between the landmark-measured displacement error and the loss of radiation energy was  -0.16 for the FEM-based algorithm. To avoid uncertainties in measuring distorted landmarks, the B-Spline-based registrations were compared to the FEM registrations, and their displacement differences equal 4.2  ±  4.7 mm on average. The displacement differences were correlated to their relative loss of radiation energy with a cross-correlation coefficient equal to 0.68. Based on the principle of energy conservation, the FEM-based mechanical model has a better performance than the B-Spline-based DIR algorithm. It is recommended that the principle of energy conservation be incorporated into a comprehensive QA protocol for adaptive radiotherapy.

Medical Subject Headings

Algorithms; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Finite Element Analysis; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Lung Neoplasms; Radiation Dosage; Radiotherapy Dosage; Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted; Retrospective Studies; Tumor Burden; Uncertainty

PubMed ID

28475493

Volume

62

Issue

11

First Page

4333

Last Page

4345

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