Rapid Multi-contrast Brain Imaging on a 035T MR-linac

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Medical physics


PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance-guided radiation therapy (MRgRT) has shown great promise for localization and real-time tumor monitoring. However, to date, quantitative imaging has been limited for low field MRgRT. This work benchmarks quantitative T1, R2* and Proton Density (PD)-mapping in phantom on a 0.35T MR-linac and implements a novel acquisition method, STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE). To further validate STAGE in a clinical setting, a pilot study was undertaken in a cohort of brain tumor patients to elucidate opportunities for longitudinal functional imaging with an MR-linac in the brain.

METHODS: STAGE (two triple-echo gradient echo (GRE) acquisitions) was optimized for a 0.35T low-field MR-linac. Simulations were performed to choose two flip angles to optimize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and T1-mapping precision. Tradeoffs between SNR, scan time, and spatial resolution for whole-brain coverage were evaluated in healthy volunteers. Data were inputted into a STAGE processing pipeline to yield 4 qualitative images (T1-weighted, enhanced T1-weighted, proton-density (PD) weighted, and simulated FLuid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (sFLAIR)), and 3 quantitative datasets (T1, PD, and R2*). A benchmarking ISMRM/NIST phantom consisting of vials with variable NiCl(2) and MnCl(2) concentrations was scanned using variable flip angles (VFA) (2-60 degrees) and inversion recovery (IR) methods at 0.35T. STAGE and VFA T1 values of vials were compared to IR T1 values. As measures of agreement with reference values and repeatability, relative error (RE) and coefficient of variability (CV) were calculated, respectively, for quantitative MR values within the phantom vials (spheres). To demonstrate feasibility, longitudinal STAGE data (pre-treatment, weekly, and ~2 months post-treatment) were acquired in an IRB-approved pilot study of brain tumor cases via the generation of temporal and differential quantitative MRI maps.

RESULTS: In the phantom, RE of measured STAGE and VFA T1 relative to IR reference values were 7.0 ± 2.5% and 9.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. RE for the PD vials was 8.1%±6.8% and CV for phantom R2* measurements was 10.1% ± 9.9%. Simulations and volunteer experiments yielded final STAGE parameters of FA=50°/10°, 1x1x3 mm(3) resolution, TR=40ms, TE=5/20/34ms in 10 minutes (64 slices). In the pilot study of brain tumor patients, differential maps for R2* and T1 maps were sensitive to local tumor changes and appeared similar to 3T follow up MRI datasets.

CONCLUSION: Quantitative T1, R2*, and PD mapping are promising at 0.35T agreeing well with reference data. STAGE phantom data offer quantitative representations comparable to traditional methods in a fraction of the acquisition time. Initial feasibility of implementing STAGE at 0.35T in a patient brain tumor cohort suggests that detectable changes can be observed over time. With confirmation in a larger cohort, results may be implemented to identify areas of recurrence and facilitate adaptive radiation therapy.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print