Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Adv Radiat Oncol


PURPOSE: Patient tolerability of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiation treatment delivery is limited by the need for repeated deep inspiratory breath holds (DIBHs). This volunteer study assessed the feasibility of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with and without DIBH for respiratory motion management during radiation treatment with an MR-linear accelerator (MR-linac).

METHODS AND MATERIALS: MR imaging safety was first addressed by placing the CPAP device in an MR-safe closet and configuring a tube circuit via waveguide to the magnet bore. Reproducibility and linearity of the final configuration were assessed. Six healthy volunteers underwent thoracic imaging in a 0.35T MR-linac, with one free breathing (FB) and 2 DIBH acquisitions being obtained at 5 pressures from 0 to 15 cm-H(2)O. Lung and heart volumes and positions were recorded; repeatability was assessed by comparing 2 consecutive DIBH scans. Blinded reviewers graded images for motion artifact using a 3-point grading scale. Participants completed comfort and perception surveys before and after imaging sessions.

RESULTS: Compared with FB alone, FB-10, FB-12, and FB-15 cm H(2)O significantly increased lung volumes (+23%, +34%, +44%; all P <.05) and inferiorly displaced the heart (0.86 cm, 0.96 cm, 1.18 cm; all P < . 05). Lung volumes were significantly greater with DIBH-0 cm H(2)O compared with FB-15 cm H(2)O (+105% vs +44%, P = .01), and DIBH-15 cm H(2)O yielded additional volume increase (+131% vs +105%, P = .01). Adding CPAP to DIBH decreased lung volume differences between consecutive breath holds (correlation coefficient 0.97 at 15 cm H(2)O vs 0.00 at 0 cm H(2)O). The addition of 15 cm H(2)O CPAP reduced artifact scores (P = .03) compared with FB; all DIBH images (0-15 cm H(2)O) had less artifact (P < .01).

CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the feasibility of integrating CPAP in an MR-linac environment in healthy volunteers. Extending this work to a larger patient cohort is warranted to further establish the role of CPAP as an alternative and concurrent approach to DIBH in MR-guided radiation therapy.

PubMed ID






First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.