Sriramulu S, Thoidingjam S, Brown SL, Siddiqui F, Movsas B, and Nyati S. Molecular targets that sensitize cancer to radiation killing: From the bench to the bedside. Biomed Pharmacother 2022; 158:114126.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy
Radiotherapy is a standard cytotoxic therapy against solid cancers. It uses ionizing radiation to kill tumor cells through damage to DNA, either directly or indirectly. Radioresistance is often associated with dysregulated DNA damage repair processes. Most radiosensitizers enhance radiation-mediated DNA damage and reduce the rate of DNA repair ultimately leading to accumulation of DNA damages, cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. Recently, agents targeting key signals in DNA damage response such as DNA repair pathways and cell-cycle have been developed. This new class of molecularly targeted radiosensitizing agents is being evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies to monitor their activity in potentiating radiation cytotoxicity of tumors and reducing normal tissue toxicity. The molecular pathways of DNA damage response are reviewed with a focus on the repair mechanisms, therapeutic targets under current clinical evaluation including ATM, ATR, CDK1, CDK4/6, CHK1, DNA-PKcs, PARP-1, Wee1, & MPS1/TTK and potential new targets (BUB1, and DNA LIG4) for radiation sensitization.
Medical Subject Headings
Humans; Neoplasms; DNA Repair; DNA Damage; Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; Cell Cycle Checkpoints