Estimated absolute percentage of biopsied tissue positive for Gleason pattern 4 (eAPP4) in low dose rate prostate brachytherapy: Evaluation of prognostic utility in a large cohort

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Radiotherapy and oncology


PURPOSE: To determine whether a system to estimate Absolute Percentage of Biopsied Tissue Positive for Gleason Pattern 4 (eAPP4) is useful as a prognostication tool for patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer (IR-PCa) undergoing low dose rate prostate brachytherapy.

METHODS: 497 patients with IR-PCa and known grade group 2 or 3 disease treated with low dose rate seed brachytherapy (LDR-BT) at a quaternary cancer centre were retrospectively reviewed. Prostate biopsies for each patient included Gleason grading with synoptic reporting that did not include percentage of pattern 4 disease found within the sample. Each core was assigned a grade grouping, however, and that was used with optimized estimates of percentage of pattern four disease to estimate eAPP4. Outcomes including cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR), treatment of recurrent disease (RRX), and metastasis-free survival (MFS) were then reviewed and the prognostic value of eAPP4 evaluated.

RESULTS: 428 (86%) patients had Gleason grade group 2 and 69 (14%) patients had Gleason grade group 3 disease. 230 (46%) patients had National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) favourable intermediate at baseline, while 267 (54%) of patients had NCCN unfavourable intermediate at baseline. Median follow-up was 7.3 (5.5-9.6) years. eAPP4 was predictive of CIR (p = 0.003), RRX (p = 0.003), or MFS (p = 0.001) events, while Gleason grade grouping alone was not. eAPP4 was strongest as a predictor for MFS when estimates of 30% (grade group 2) and 80% (grade group 3) were used [HR 1.07 (1.03-1.12); p = 0.001].

CONCLUSIONS: eAPP4 was strongly predictive of recurrence and metastasis-free survival in a large cohort of patients receiving LDR-BT treatment for IR-PCa. Treatment of future patients with IR-PCa could include the use of eAPP4 prognostication.

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