American Radium Society Appropriate Use Criteria for Unresectable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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JAMA Oncol


IMPORTANCE: The treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) has been informed by more than 5 decades of clinical trials and other relevant literature. However, controversies remain regarding the application of various radiation and systemic therapies in commonly encountered clinical scenarios.

OBJECTIVE: To develop case-referenced consensus and evidence-based guidelines to inform clinical practice in unresectable LA-NSCLC.

EVIDENCE REVIEW: The American Radium Society (ARS) Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) Thoracic Committee guideline is an evidence-based consensus document assessing various clinical scenarios associated with LA-NSCLC. A systematic review of the literature with evidence ratings was conducted to inform the appropriateness of treatment recommendations by the ARS AUC Thoracic Committee for the management of unresectable LA-NSCLC.

FINDINGS: Treatment appropriateness of a variety of LA-NSCLC scenarios was assessed by a consensus-based modified Delphi approach using a range of 3 points to 9 points to denote consensus agreement. Committee recommendations were vetted by the ARS AUC Executive Committee and a 2-week public comment period before official approval and adoption. Standard of care management of good prognosis LA-NSCLC consists of combined concurrent radical (60-70 Gy) platinum-based chemoradiation followed by consolidation durvalumab immunotherapy (for patients without progression). Planning and delivery of locally advanced lung cancer radiotherapy usually should be performed using intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques. A variety of palliative and radical fractionation schedules are available to treat patients with poor performance and/or pulmonary status. The salvage therapy for a local recurrence after successful primary management is complex and likely requires both multidisciplinary input and shared decision-making with the patient.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Evidence-based guidance on the management of various unresectable LA-NSCLC scenarios is provided by the ARS AUC to optimize multidisciplinary patient care for this challenging patient population.

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ePub ahead of print