Cook A, Ghanem A, Hijaz M, Burmeister C, and Elshaikh M. Survival Outcomes and Patterns of Recurrence After Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Uterine Serous Carcinoma. American Journal of Clinical Oncology-Cancer Clinical Trials 2021; 44(10):S13-S14.
Am J Clin Oncol
Background: Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is a relatively rare histology that portends a poor prognosis. The optimal adjuvant therapy for early-stage USC remains controversial; however, adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) and chemotherapy is a commonly utilized strategy.
Objectives: We sought to characterize predictors of survival endpoints and determine recurrence patterns in women with early-stage USC who received adjuvant VB and chemotherapy.
Methods: We queried our prospectively maintained database for patients with 2009 FIGO stages I-II USC who underwent adequate surgical staging at our institution and received adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel along with VB. We excluded women with synchronous malignancies. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Univariate (UVA) and multivariate analyses (MVA) were performed to identify statistically significant predictors of survival endpoints. Variables with P<0.1 on UVA were included in a MVA and any variable with P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: We identified 77 women who met our inclusion criteria who underwent surgical staging between 1991 and 2018. The median follow-up time was 36 months (range 6-125). The median age was 66 years. Of the cohort, 70% were FIGO stage IA, 17% were stage IB, and 13% were stage II. The median number of dissected lymph nodes (LN) was 22. There were 10 women (13%) diagnosed with a recurrence with a median time to recurrence of 12.0 months. The main site of initial recurrence was distant in seven patients (70%) with the remaining recurrences being pelvic/para-aortic. The 5-year RFS for patients who experienced a distant recurrence was 87% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.75-0.94). For the entire cohort, 5-year OS, DSS, and RFS were 83% (95% CI 0.68-0.91), 92% (95% CI 0.78-0.97), and 83% (95% CI 0.71-0.91), respectively. The sole predictor of 5-year OS on UVA was receipt of omentectomy (P=0.09). The predictors of 5-year DSS on UVA were presence of positive peritoneal cytology (P=0.03), number of LN examined (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.00-1.21, P=0.05), and number of para-aortic LN examined (HR 1.16 [95% CI 1.01-1.32], P=0.03). The sole independent predictor of DSS was the presence of positive peritoneal cytology (HR 0.03 [95% CI 0.00-0.72], P=0.03). Predictors of five-year RFS on UVA were robotic vs open surgery technique (P=0.06), presence of positive peritoneal cytology (P=0.01), percent myometrial invasion (HR 5.59 [95% CI 0.84-37.46], P=0.08), and presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (P=0.05).
Conclusions: Five-year survival outcomes were promising in this cohort of women with early-stage USC treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and VB; however, this study shows that the predominant pattern of relapse in this population is distant, suggesting the need to optimize systemic therapy. Possible predictors of worse outcomes include positive peritoneal cytology, deep myometrial invasion, and presence of LVSI. Multi-institutional pooled analyses are warranted to confirm our study results.