MDCT of pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of the pathophysiology, gamut of imaging findings, and treatment
Spain J, and Rheinboldt M. MDCT of pelvic inflammatory disease: a review of the pathophysiology, gamut of imaging findings, and treatment. Emerg Radiol 2017 Feb;24(1):87-93.
Representing an ascending, sexually spread pyogenic infection of the female genital tract, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a commonly encountered cause for emergency visits and hospitalizations among young and adult female patients. Though gynecologic evaluation and sonography constitute the mainstay of diagnosis, multidetector CT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is not uncommonly performed, often as the initial imaging modality, due to the frequently vague and indeterminate clinical presentation. As such, knowledge and attenuation to the often subtle early imaging features of PID afford the radiologist a critical chance to direct and expedite appropriate pathways of patient care, minimizing the risk for secondary complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and enteric adhesions. In this paper, we will review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, early and late imaging features of PID as well as potential secondary complications and treatment options. Additionally, we will discuss published data metrics on CT performance regarding sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis as well as potential imaging differential diagnostic considerations.
Medical Subject Headings
Female; Humans; Multidetector Computed Tomography; Pelvic Inflammatory Disease; Sensitivity and Specificity