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Front Oncol


Introduction: Multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) has shown promising results in the diagnosis and localization of prostate cancer. Furthermore, mpMRI may play an important role in identifying the dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) for radiotherapy boost. We sought to investigate the level of correlation between dominant tumor foci contoured on various mpMRI sequences. Methods: mpMRI data from 90 patients with MR-guided biopsy-proven prostate cancer were obtained from the SPIE-AAPM-NCI Prostate MR Classification Challenge. Each case consisted of T2-weighted (T2W), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and K(trans) images computed from dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences. All image sets were rigidly co-registered, and the dominant tumor foci were identified and contoured for each MRI sequence. Hausdorff distance (HD), mean distance to agreement (MDA), and Dice and Jaccard coefficients were calculated between the contours for each pair of MRI sequences (i.e., T2 vs. ADC, T2 vs. K(trans), and ADC vs. K(trans)). The voxel wise spearman correlation was also obtained between these image pairs. Results: The DILs were located in the anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone, peripheral zone, and transition zone in 35.2, 5.6, 32.4, and 25.4% of patients, respectively. Gleason grade groups 1-5 represented 29.6, 40.8, 15.5, and 14.1% of the study population, respectively (with group grades 4 and 5 analyzed together). The mean contour volumes for the T2W images, and the ADC and K(trans) maps were 2.14 +/- 2.1, 2.22 +/- 2.2, and 1.84 +/- 1.5 mL, respectively. K(trans) values were indistinguishable between cancerous regions and the rest of prostatic regions for 19 patients. The Dice coefficient and Jaccard index were 0.74 +/- 0.13, 0.60 +/- 0.15 for T2W-ADC and 0.61 +/- 0.16, 0.46 +/- 0.16 for T2W-K(trans). The voxel-based Spearman correlations were 0.20 +/- 0.20 for T2W-ADC and 0.13 +/- 0.25 for T2W-K(trans). Conclusions: The DIL contoured on T2W images had a high level of agreement with those contoured on ADC maps, but there was little to no quantitative correlation of these results with tumor location and Gleason grade group. Technical hurdles are yet to be solved for precision radiotherapy to target the DILs based on physiological imaging. A Boolean sum volume (BSV) incorporating all available MR sequences may be reasonable in delineating the DIL boost volume.

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