MDCT Imaging of Acute Bladder Pathology
Hirshberg B, and Rheinboldt M. MDCT Imaging of Acute Bladder Pathology. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2019; Epub ahead of print.
Current problems in diagnostic radiology
In this review, we will discuss and illustrate the pathophysiology, presentation, and multidetector computed tomography findings associated with emergent bladder conditions, limiting our discussion to traumatic, infectious, and obstructive etiologies. After reviewing computed tomography cystographic technique, the commonly utilized classification systems for bladder trauma will be presented with illustrative examples of associated typical and more infrequent secondary injuries and complications. Next, the pathogenesis and imaging appearance of both mechanical and neurogenic acute urinary retention will be addressed, including less common though potentially pathognomonic obstructive etiologies including urethral calculi and ectopic ureteroceles. Finally, we will review and illustrate the imaging features of both inflammatory and infectious cystitis, including hemorrhagic and emphysematous variants, as well as the potentially encountered secondary complications.
ePub ahead of print