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Quant Imaging Med Surg


Background: We employed machine learning approaches to (I) determine distinct progression trajectories in Parkinson's disease (PD) (unsupervised clustering task), and (II) predict progression trajectories (supervised prediction task), from early (years 0 and 1) data, making use of clinical and imaging features.

Methods: We studied PD-subjects derived from longitudinal datasets (years 0, 1, 2 & 4; Parkinson's Progressive Marker Initiative). We extracted and analyzed 981 features, including motor, non-motor, and radiomics features extracted for each region-of-interest (ROIs: left/right caudate and putamen) using our standardized standardized environment for radiomics analysis (SERA) radiomics software. Segmentation of ROIs on dopamine transposer - single photon emission computed tomography (DAT SPECT) images were performed via magnetic resonance images (MRI). After performing cross-sectional clustering on 885 subjects (original dataset) to identify disease subtypes, we identified optimal longitudinal trajectories using hybrid machine learning systems (HMLS), including principal component analysis (PCA) + K-Means algorithms (KMA) followed by Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Calinski-Harabatz criterion (CHC), and elbow criterion (EC). Subsequently, prediction of the identified trajectories from early year data was performed using multiple HMLSs including 16 Dimension Reduction Algorithms (DRA) and 10 classification algorithms.

Results: We identified 3 distinct progression trajectories. Hotelling's t squared test (HTST) showed that the identified trajectories were distinct. The trajectories included those with (I, II) disease escalation (2 trajectories, 27% and 38% of patients) and (III) stable disease (1 trajectory, 35% of patients). For trajectory prediction from early year data, HMLSs including the stochastic neighbor embedding algorithm (SNEA, as a DRA) as well as locally linear embedding algorithm (LLEA, as a DRA), linked with the new probabilistic neural network classifier (NPNNC, as a classifier), resulted in accuracies of 78.4% and 79.2% respectively, while other HMLSs such as SNEA + Lib_SVM (library for support vector machines) and t_SNE (t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding) + NPNNC resulted in 76.5% and 76.1% respectively.

Conclusions: This study moves beyond cross-sectional PD subtyping to clustering of longitudinal disease trajectories. We conclude that combining medical information with SPECT-based radiomics features, and optimal utilization of HMLSs, can identify distinct disease trajectories in PD patients, and enable effective prediction of disease trajectories from early year data.

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