Penning DH, Jones B, Fayed M, Han X, and Brodie C. Effect of cocaine on potassium-evoked release of glutamate from fetal rat brain synaptosomes. Cureus 2022; 14(10).
Introduction: Cocaine use during pregnancy can affect fetal brain development. A fetal brain injury could happen from the direct effect of cocaine on the developing brain or from the reduction of placental perfusion from vasoconstriction, which may lead to hypoxia-ischemia. A potential mechanism for brain injury could be due to a neurotransmitter imbalance within the brain, especially glutamate. In an immature rat brain synaptosome model, we explored the additive effect of cocaine alone on glutamate release and the effect of cocaine combined with simulated hypoxic depolarization using potassium as a surrogate.
Method: Rat pups' brains were dissected and placed on a chilled petri dish. They then entered the experimental protocol. The suspended synaptosomes were divided equally into four experimental groups (control, high potassium "surrogate to hypoxic stimulation," cocaine, and cocaine + high K). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyzed glutamate with fluorescent detection.
Results: The glutamate level was lowest in the cocaine-only group, with a level of 1.96 × 104, compared to the control and high potassium group. However, combining cocaine with high potassium seemed to generate a synergistic effect, achieving the highest glutamate level of all groups with a value of 5.31 × 104. Post hoc Conover's test for multiple pairwise-comparison between groups was done. In comparing various solutions to control, we did not find a statistically significant difference with the cocaine-only solution with a p-value of 0.074. Also, on comparing various other solutions to each other, there was no statistically significant difference between cocaine vs. cocaine + high potassium a p-value of 0.074.
Conclusion: Our data support the conclusion that cocaine alone does not induce glutamate release from fetal rat brain synaptosomes. Exposure to high potassium does lead to glutamate release. However, cocaine greatly enhances glutamate release in the presence of high potassium levels. This could explain how cocaine affects brain maturation during pregnancy with a low oxygen tension environment in the placenta. This hypothesis should be tested in vivo.