Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of SM-1, a triple-drug combination to increase total sleep time

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Human psychopharmacology


OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SM-1 after administration of a single oral dose to healthy volunteers in a placebo-controlled double-blind trial of daytime sedation. Secondary objectives were to determine the onset, duration, and offset of the sedative effects using subjective and objective measures of sedation. Safety and tolerability of SM-1 were also investigated.

METHODS: Males and females 18-45 years of age received SM-1, a combination drug product comprised of diphenhydramine, zolpidem (delayed release), and lorazepam (delayed release). The pharmacokinetic profile of each drug was determined from blood samples. Sedative effects were assessed by visual analog scale, digit symbol substitution test, memory test, and quantitative electroencephalography.

RESULTS: Similar number and severity of adverse events were observed following administration of SM-1 and placebo. Onset of sedation, as determined by subjective, performance, and electroencephalography measures, occurred 0.5-1 hr postdose, lasting about 7-7.5 hr. Plasma concentration curves for the two delayed-release components were altered compared with published data for unmodified drugs. Exposure values obtained with the combination product were in good agreement with published values of the drugs given individually.

CONCLUSIONS: SM-1 was well tolerated and has pharmacologic activity starting within an hour of ingestion, lasting approximately 7-8 hr. Sedative activity was seen with subjective, psychomotor, and electroencephalography assays.

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