A randomized controlled trial of digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in pregnant women
Kalmbach DA, Cheng P, O'Brien LM, Swanson LM, Sangha R, Sen S, Guille C, Cuamatzi-Castelan A, Henry AL, Roth T, and Drake CL. A randomized controlled trial of digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in pregnant women. Sleep Med 2020; 72:82-92.
OBJECTIVE: Despite high rates of prenatal insomnia, efficacious treatment options for this population are quite limited. Early evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the efficacy of face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) for prenatal insomnia. Yet, as many patients are unable to access this specialist-driven care, a critical need exists to increase its accessibility. This RCT examined the efficacy internet-based digital CBTI in pregnant women with insomnia.
METHODS: Single-site RCT. A total of 91 pregnant women (29.03 ± 4.16 years) nearing/entering the third trimester who screened positive for clinical insomnia on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were randomized to digital CBTI or digital sleep education control. The ISI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale's Cognitive factor (PSAS-C) served as study outcomes, which were collected before treatment and after treatment during pregnancy, then six weeks after childbirth.
RESULTS: From pre to posttreatment, CBTI patients reported reductions in ISI (-4.91 points, p < 0.001) and PSQI (-2.98 points, p < 0.001) and increases in nightly sleep duration by 32 min (p = 0.008). Sleep symptoms did not change during pregnancy in the control group. After childbirth, CBTI patients, relative to controls, slept longer by 40 min per night (p = 0.01) and reported better sleep maintenance. No pre or postnatal treatment effects on depression or cognitive arousal were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Digital CBTI improves sleep quality and sleep duration during pregnancy and after childbirth. To better optimize outcomes, CBTI should be tailored to meet the changing needs of women as the progress through pregnancy and early parenting. NAME: Insomnia and Rumination in Late Pregnancy and the Risk for Postpartum Depression. URL: clinicaltrials.gov. Registration: NCT03596879.