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CNS drugs


BACKGROUND: Sodium oxybate has been recognized as a gold standard for the treatment of disrupted nighttime sleep due to narcolepsy. Its short half-life and immediate-release formulation require patients to awaken 2.5-4 h after their bedtime dose to take a second dose. A novel extended-release, once-nightly sodium oxybate formulation (ON-SXB; FT218) is under US Food and Drug Administration review for the treatment of adults with narcolepsy.

OBJECTIVE: A phase III trial of ON-SXB in individuals with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) or 2 (NT2) [the REST-ON trial; NCT02720744] has been conducted and the primary results reported elsewhere. Secondary objectives from REST-ON were to assess the efficacy of ON-SXB on disrupted nighttime sleep; the results of this analysis are reported here.

METHODS: In the double-blind, phase III REST-ON trial, patients aged ≥ 16 years were randomly assigned 1:1 to ON-SXB (1 week, 4.5 g; 2 weeks, 6 g; 5 weeks, 7.5 g; 5 weeks, 9 g) or placebo. Secondary endpoints included polysomnographic measures of sleep stage shifts and nocturnal arousals and patient-reported assessments of sleep quality and refreshing nature of sleep at 6, 7.5, and 9 g; post hoc analyses included changes in time spent in each sleep stage, delta power, and assessments in stimulant-use subgroups for prespecified endpoints.

RESULTS: In total, 190 participants (n = 97, ON-SXB; n = 93, placebo) were included in the efficacy analyses. All three ON-SXB doses demonstrated a clinically meaningful, statistically significant decrease vs placebo in the number of transitions to wake/N1 from N1, N2, and rapid eye movement (REM) stages (all doses p < 0.001) and the number of nocturnal arousals (p < 0.05 ON-SXB 6 g; p < 0.001 7.5 and 9 g). Sleep quality and refreshing nature of sleep were significantly improved with all three ON-SXB doses vs placebo (p < 0.001). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant reduction in time spent in N1 (p < 0.05 ON-SXB 6 g; p < 0.001 7.5 and 9 g) and REM (all p < 0.001) and increased time spent in N3 with ON-SXB vs placebo (all p < 0.001), with a significant increase in delta power (p < 0.01 ON-SXB 6 g; p < 0.05 7.5 g; p < 0.001 9 g) and increased REM latency (ON-SXB 7.5 g vs placebo; p < 0.05). Significant improvements in disrupted nighttime sleep were observed regardless of concomitant stimulant use.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinically beneficial, single nighttime dose of ON-SXB significantly improved disrupted nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy.


Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Humans; Narcolepsy; Polysomnography; Sleep; Sleep Stages; Sodium Oxybate

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