Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Nat Sci Sleep


OBJECTIVE: We adapted the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test to Turkish (FIRST-T) and validated it.

METHODS: We randomly divided 774 Turkish university students into two equal groups for exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha values were utilized for reliability analyses. Item response theory (IRT) approach also used for psychometric properties on the full sample. For discriminant validity, study sample were classified into high and low sleep reactivity groups, and their sociodemographic and sleep data were compared.

RESULTS: EFA results suggested a one-factor structure of the FIRST-T, which was confirmed by CFA results. The FIRST-T had solid internal reliability. Item analysis results showed that all the items could distinguish between low and high scorers. This scale showed the same construct (clinical insomnia vs good sleepers) across the sexes in multi-group CFA and differential item functioning results. In the high FIRST-T score group, sleep quality, severity of insomnia, and anxiety scores were higher. In this group, more participants had clinical insomnia according to the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and were poor sleepers according to the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: The FIRST-T has robust psychometric properties that assesses sleep reactivity among university students.

PubMed ID




First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.