Kalmbach DA, Cheng P, Roth A, Roth T, Swanson LM, O'Brien LM, Fresco DM, Harb NC, Cuamatzi-Castelan AS, Reffi AN, and Drake CL. DSM-5 insomnia disorder in pregnancy: associations with depression, suicidal ideation, and cognitive and somatic arousal, and identifying clinical cutoffs for detection. Sleep Adv 2022; 3(1):zpac006.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The study had three primary goals. First, we estimated survey-assessed DSM-5 insomnia disorder rates in pregnancy, and described associated sociodemographics, and sleep-wake and mental health symptoms. Second, we derived cutoffs for detecting DSM-5 insomnia disorder using common self-report measures of sleep symptoms. Third, we identified clinically relevant cut-points on measures of nocturnal cognitive and somatic arousal.
METHODS: Ninety-nine women (85.9% in the 2nd trimester) completed online surveys including DSM-5 insomnia disorder criteria, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Presleep Arousal Scale’s Cognitive (PSASC) and Somatic (PSASS) factors, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
RESULTS: DSM-5 insomnia disorder rate was 19.2%. Insomnia was associated with depression, suicidality, nocturnal cognitive and somatic arousal, and daytime sleepiness. An ISI scoring method that aligns with DSM-5 criteria yielded excellent metrics for detecting insomnia disorder and good sleep. Regarding quantitative cutoffs, ISI ≥ 10 and ISI ≥ 11 (but not ISI ≥ 15) were supported for detecting DSM-5 insomnia, whereas ISI ≤ 7 and ISI ≤ 9 performed well for detecting good sleep. PSQI cutoff of 5 was supported for detecting insomnia and good sleep. The optimal cutoff for nocturnal cognitive arousal was PSASC ≥ 18, whereas the optimal cutoff for somatic arousal was PSASS ≥ 13.
CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia disorder affects a large segment of pregnant women. Empirically derived cutoffs for insomnia, good sleep, cognitive arousal, and somatic arousal may inform case identification and future perinatal sleep research methodology.