Perinatal Understanding of Mindful Awareness for Sleep (PUMAS): A single-arm proof-of-concept clinical trial of a mindfulness-based intervention for DSM-5 insomnia disorder during pregnancy
Kalmbach DA, Cheng P, Reffi AN, Ong JC, Swanson LM, Fresco DM, Walch O, Seymour GM, Fellman-Couture C, Bayoneto AD, Roth T, and Drake CL. Perinatal Understanding of Mindful Awareness for Sleep (PUMAS): A single-arm proof-of-concept clinical trial of a mindfulness-based intervention for DSM-5 insomnia disorder during pregnancy. Sleep Med 2023; 108:79-89.
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for prenatal insomnia, but unresolved cognitive arousal limits patient outcomes. Therapies aimed at reducing cognitive arousal may benefit pregnant women with insomnia. This proof-of-concept trial evaluated Perinatal Understanding of Mindful Awareness for Sleep (PUMAS, which combines mindfulness with behavioral sleep strategies) on insomnia, depression, and cognitive arousal.
METHODS: A single-arm trial of 12 pregnant women with DSM-5 insomnia disorder (n = 5/12 with comorbid depression) who received six sessions of PUMAS delivered individually via telemedicine. Pretreatment and posttreatment outcomes included the insomnia severity index (ISI), Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS), pre-sleep arousal scale's cognitive factor (PSASC; nocturnal cognitive arousal), perinatal-focused rumination (appended to PSASC), and Glasgow sleep effort scale.
RESULTS: Eleven of 12 patients completed all sessions. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed a 10.83-point reduction in ISI (Cohen's dz = 3.05), resulting in 83.3% insomnia remission. PUMAS produced large reductions in EPDS (Cohen's dz = 2.76 in depressed group), resulting in all five baseline depressed patients remitting from depression. PUMAS produced large reductions in nocturnal cognitive arousal, perinatal-focused rumination, and sleep effort (all Cohen's dzs>2.00). Patients were highly satisfied with PUMAS and identified the telemedicine format and meditation app as positive features of its delivery. Patients rated sleep restriction and guided meditations as the most helpful treatment components.
CONCLUSION: Prenatal insomnia patients were highly engaged in PUMAS, which produced large acute reductions in insomnia, depression, and cognitive arousal. These findings support the concept and feasibility of PUMAS for pregnant women with insomnia who present with or without comorbid depression.
GOV ID: NCT04443959.
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Female; Humans; Pregnancy; Mindfulness; Pregnant Women; Puma; Sleep; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Treatment Outcome; Proof of Concept Study