Post-procedural pseudoaneurysms: Single-center experience

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Objectives Pseudoaneurysms are a well-recognized complication of percutaneous angiographic procedures. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is currently the preferred treatment modality. This study was undertaken to evaluate our experience with the management of post-procedure pseudoaneurysms. Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of all patients who developed a post-procedure pseudoaneurysm between March 2004 and January 2013. Data were obtained from our prospectively maintained non-invasive vascular laboratory data base. Results Overall, 167 patients (80 men) with post-procedure pseudoaneurysms were identified. The mean age was 66 years. Post-procedure pseudoaneurysms developed following diagnostic coronary angiography (38%), coronary angioplasty (37%), peripheral vascular interventions (14.7%), or other access procedures (7.6%). Mean post-procedure pseudoaneurysm diameter was 2.8 ± 1.8 cm. One hundred forty-two post-procedure pseudoaneurysms were injected with thrombin under ultrasound guidance. Primary success rate was 93.5%. There were 12 (8.5%) procedural failures of which seven (58%) responded to reinjection, three (25%) required operative management, one was treated with ultrasound-guided compression, and one (8.3%) was simply observed. On multivariate analysis, failures were associated with increased aneurysm diameter ( p = 0.006; odds ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.96), end-stage renal disease ( p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.78) and superficial femoral artery aneurysm origin ( p = 0.031; odds ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.86). There were two episodes of thrombus formation in the femoral artery; one resolved with anticoagulation alone, and the other required thrombectomy. Conclusions Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is an effective and safe method for managing post-procedure pseudoaneurysms. Failure rates are low and associated with large aneurysm size, superficial femoral artery origin and end-stage renal disease.

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Aged; Aneurysm, False; Cardiac Catheterization; Catheterization, Peripheral; Chi-Square Distribution; Coronary Angiography; Databases, Factual; Endovascular Procedures; Female; Humans; Injections; Logistic Models; Male; Michigan; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Retreatment; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Thrombin; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; Ultrasonography, Interventional

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