Predictors of Clavien 4 Complications and Mortality After Necrosectomy: Analysis of the NSQIP Database

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Journal of gastrointestinal surgery


BACKGROUND: Acute severe pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal reasons for admission to hospitals in the USA. Up to 20 % of these patients will progress to necrotizing pancreatitis requiring intervention. The aim of this study is to identify specific preoperative factors for the development of Clavien 4 complications and mortality in patients undergoing pancreatic necrosectomy.

METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) participant use files were reviewed from 2007 to 2012 to identify patients who underwent a pancreatic necrosectomy. Postoperative complications were stratified into Clavien 4 (ICU level complications) and Clavien 5 (mortality). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

RESULTS: A total of 1156 patients underwent a pancreatic necrosectomy from 2007 to 2012. Overall, 42 % of patients experienced a Clavien 4 complication. Mortality rate was 9.5 %. Nonindependent functional status and ASA class were highly significant (p < 0.001) in univariate analysis. Frailty and emergency surgery status (p < 0.001), as well as increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and alkaline phosphatase and decreased albumin (p < 0.05) demonstrated independent significance of Clavien 4 complications and mortality in multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSION: This study identified specific preoperative variables that place patients at increased risk of Clavien 4 complications and mortality after necrosectomy. Identification of high-risk patients can aid in selection of appropriate treatment strategies and allow for informed preoperative discussion regarding surgical risk.

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Adult; Debridement; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Pancreatectomy; Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing; Postoperative Complications; Survival Rate; United States

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