Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the paravertebral muscle: A case report.
Takahashi K, Putchakayala KG, Safwan M, and Kim DY. Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the paravertebral muscle: A case report. World J Hepatol 2017; 9(22):973-978.
World J Hepatol
Identification of extrahepatic metastases (EHM) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been paradoxically increasing due to an increase in the survival of HCC patients. However, metastasis of HCC to the skeletal muscle tissue is extremely rare. We describe a unique case of HCC metastasizing to the paravertebral muscle. A 55-year-old man with a history of hepatitis B cirrhosis underwent partial liver resection with complete removal of HCC. Three months later, a computed tomography (CT) scan showed intrahepatic recurrence. The tumors were treated with yttrium-90 microspheres, trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization, and sorafenib. Six months later, a CT scan showed an enhancing lesion of the left paravertebral muscle that on biopsy were consistent with metastatic HCC. The tumor was treated with stereotactic hypo-fractionated image-guided radiation therapy (SHFRT). A follow-up scan 3 mo post-radiotherapy revealed a stable appearance of the paravertebral muscle metastasis. Because of the progression in the intrahepatic tumors, the patient was treated with capecitabine, which was changed to dasatinib 6 mo later. The patient passed away three years after the primary surgical resection. Management of EHM poses an extreme challenge. This is the first case of HCC with EHM to the paravertebral muscle in which stability of disease was achieved using SHFRT. This case highlights the importance of early detection of hepatitis B viral infection and initiation of anti-viral therapy to decrease recurrence of HCC and prevent EHM.