Factors at de novo donor-specific antibody initial detection associated with allograft loss: a multicenter study
Schinstock CA, Dadhania DM, Everly MJ, Smith B, Gandhi M, Farkash E, Sharma VK, Samaniego-Picota M, and Stegall MD. Factors at de novo donor-specific antibody initial detection associated with allograft loss: a multicenter study. Transpl Int 2019; 32(5):502-515.
We aimed to evaluate patient factors including nonadherence and viral infection and de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) characteristics [total immunoglobulin G (IgG), C1q, IgG3, and IgG4] as predictors of renal allograft failure in a multicenter cohort with dnDSA. We performed a retrospective observational study of 113 kidney transplant recipients with dnDSA and stored sera for analysis. Predictors of death-censored allograft loss were assessed by Cox proportional modeling. Death-censored allograft survival was 77.0% (87/113) during a median follow-up of 2.2 (IQR 1.2-3.7) years after dnDSA detection. Predictors of allograft failure included medication nonadherence [HR 6.5 (95% CI 2.6-15.9)], prior viral infection requiring immunosuppression reduction [HR 5.3 (95% CI 2.1-13.5)], IgG3 positivity [HR 3.8 (95% CI 1.5, 9.3)], and time post-transplant (years) until donor-specific antibody (DSA) detection [HR 1.2 (95% CI 1.0, 1.3)]. In the 67 patients who were biopsied at dnDSA detection, chronic antibody-mediated rejection [HR 11.4 (95% CI 2.3, 56.0)] and mixed rejection [HR 7.4 (95% CI 2.2, 24.8)] were associated with allograft failure. We conclude that patient factors, including a history of viral infection requiring immunosuppression reduction or medication nonadherence, combined with DSA and histologic parameters must be considered to understand the risk of allograft failure in patients with dnDSA.