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Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, often guided by ultrasound (US) imaging, for treating venous insufficiencies. US imaging limitations in accurately visualizing the catheter and the lack of a temperature monitoring system can lead to sub-optimal outcomes. An integrated photoacoustic (PA)-guided EVLA system has been previously developed and reported to overcome the shortcomings of US-guided procedure. In this study, we further characterized the system and tested the in vivo utility. In addition, PA thermometry was further explored by compensating the variation of PA signal with temperature with respect to the temperature-dependent absorption of blood and water. In vivo imaging results indicated that the PA-guided EVLA system can provide high contrast and accurate images of the ablation catheter tip overlaid on US images of the background tissue. Additionally, absorption-compensated PA signal amplitudes over a relevant range of temperature were measured and demonstrated.

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