Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

The Annals of thoracic surgery


BACKGROUND: Integrated cardiothoracic surgery residencies began 2006 to address workforce shortages in cardiothoracic surgery. As more attention has been given to racial and gender disparities, our goal was to examine trends in diversity among integrated cardiothoracic residents.

METHODS: All US accredited integrated cardiothoracic programs that had accepted residents through 2020 were included. A resident list was collected through online websites and direct institutional contact. Gender, race, and year of entry were recorded. Linear regression models were used to evaluate racial and gender trends over time.

RESULTS: From 2006 through 2020, 321 residents were accepted into integrated cardiothoracic training programs. Men comprised 72% (232/321) of the cohort. The racial distribution was 66.4% White (213/321), 26.2% Asian (84/321), 5.3% Hispanic (17/321), and 2.2% African American (7/321). Over the study period the time slope for Whites was -2.95 (P < .01), indicating an approximately 3% decrease each year. The time slope for Asians was 1.60 (P < .01), whereas the time slope did not change significantly for African Americans (0.10, P = .94) or Hispanics (0.13, P = .91). Adjusting for the number of integrated programs each year as a covariate did not change trends for any race. The time slope did not change significantly over the time period for men (-0.25, P = .71).

CONCLUSIONS: Gender and racial diversity have not improved over time in integrated cardiothoracic residencies. Institutions should strive to recruit medical students from underrepresented backgrounds and increase their focus on gender diversity.

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ePub ahead of print



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