Evaluating the impact of metabolic surgery on patients with prior opioid use
Dennis A, Deng C, Yang P, Bonham AJ, Carlin AM, and Varban OA. Evaluating the impact of metabolic surgery on patients with prior opioid use. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2023.
Surg Obes Relat Dis
BACKGROUND: Metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity and may improve obesity-related pain syndromes. However, the effect of surgery on the persistent use of opioids in patients with a history of prior opioid use remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of metabolic surgery on opioid use behaviors in patients with prior opioid use.
SETTING: A consortium of public and private hospitals in Michigan.
METHODS: Using a statewide metabolic-specific data registry, we identified 16,820 patients who self-reported opioid use before undergoing metabolic surgery between 2006 and 2020 and analyzed the 8506 (50.6%) patients who responded to 1-year follow-up. We compared patient characteristics, risk-adjusted 30-day postoperative outcomes, and weight loss between patients who self-reported discontinuing opioid use 1 year after surgery and those who did not.
RESULTS: Among patients who self-reported using opioids before metabolic surgery, 3864 (45.4%) discontinued use 1 year after surgery. Predictors of persistent opioid use included an annual income of <$10,000 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.44; P = .006), Medicare insurance (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.32-1.66; P < .0001), and preoperative tobacco use (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.59; P = .0001). Patients with persistent use were more likely to have a surgical complication (9.6% versus 7.5%, P = .0328) and less percent excess weight loss (61.6% versus 64.4%, P < .0001) than patients who discontinued opioids after surgery. There were no differences in the morphine milligram equivalents prescribed within the first 30 days following surgery between groups (122.3 versus 126.5, P = .3181).
CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of patients who reported taking opioids before metabolic surgery discontinued use at 1 year. Targeted interventions aimed at high-risk patients may increase the number of patients who discontinue opioid use after metabolic surgery.
ePub ahead of print