Non-IgG4-Related Fibrosing Mediastinitis Diagnosed on Core Needle Biopsy and Treated with Steroids: A Case Study and Review of the Differential Diagnoses

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International journal of surgical pathology


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the histological characteristics and treatment efficacy of non-immunoglobulin G4-related fibrosing mediastinitis and discuss differential diagnoses for this rare entity.

METHODS: We present a case study of non-immunoglobulin G4-related fibrosing mediastinitis diagnosed on core biopsy and treated with steroids. A total of four 18-gauge core needle biopsy specimens were obtained for surgical pathology. Analysis of the patient's medical history, radiological characteristics of fibrosing mediastinitis, histological features, immunohistochemistry results, the differential diagnosis and treatment efficacy of different types of fibrosing mediastinitis was performed.

RESULTS: This report describes a unique presentation of fibrosing mediastinitis (syncope and weight loss) that was concerning for malignancy. Histological, laboratory and radiographical studies confirmed the diagnosis of non-immunoglobulin G4-related fibrosing mediastinitis. The patient received corticosteroid treatment which showed marked improvement after 1 month of treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Fibrosing mediastinitis is an extremely uncommon entity with unknown pathogenesis, and it is more important to rule out malignancy and infection than to delineate between fibrosing mediastinitis and IgG4-related disease. In doing this, we may reasonably initiate a trial of corticosteroids which may prove beneficial, as in this patient. More studies on the pathogenesis of fibrosing mediastinitis are necessary to guide better directed treatments.

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ePub ahead of print

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