Chamogeorgakis T, Toumpoulis I, Lanfear D, Williams C, Koliopoulou A, Adamopoulos S, and Cowger J. Right Ventricular Failure Following Left Ventricular Assist Device Implant: An Intermacs Analysis. J Heart Lung Transplant 2022; 41(4):S31.
J Heart Lung Transplant
Purpose: Right heart failure (RHF) management following LVAD include inotropes, right ventricular mechanical support and heart transplant. We analyzed the outcomes of severe RHF following implant of a fully magnetically levitated or hybrid magnetic centrifugal durable LVAD.
Methods: In this INTERMACS analysis we identified patients who developed severe RHF following LVAD from 2013 until 2020 as bridge to recovery or transplant. Patients were categorized in three groups based on RHF treatment strategy: inotrope support (group 1), temporary mechanical support (group 2), and durable centrifugal RVAD (group 3). Kaplan Meier and Cox-regression survival analysis between groups was undertaken. Logistic regression analysis for new onset dialysis was conducted.
Results: 2509 patients developed severe RHF after LVAD. 2199 (87.6%) patients were managed with inotropes (group 1), 233 (9.3%) with temporary RVAD (group 2) and 77 (3.1%) with durable RVAD (group 3). Group 1 had fewer patients with INTERMACS profile 1 and 2 (21.6%, p<0.001). One year survival was 84.6%, 59.3%, and 63.8% in groups 1,2, and 3 (mortality HR=2.4 and 3.3 for groups 2 and 3 vs. group 1, p<0.05). One year survival to transplant was 27%, 36.5%, and 53.6% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p<0.05). Group 2 had higher incidence of new onset dialysis (42.6%, p=0.049).
Conclusion: Survival with RHF following LVAD implant varies based on treatment strategy; inotrope support is associated with increased survival. Patients with durable RVAD are more likely to survive to transplant. Patient selection studies for durable RVAD with contraindications for transplant are necessary.