Treatment patterns, testicular loss and disparities in inpatient surgical management of testicular torsion in boys: a population-based study 1998-2010.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

BJU international


OBJECTIVES: To examine temporal trends in inpatient testicular torsion (TT) treatment and testicular loss (TL), and to identify risk factors for TL using a large nationally representative paediatric cohort, stratified to established high prevalence TT cohorts (neonatal TT [NTT]; age <1 >years) and adolescent TT (ATT; age 12-17 years).

METHODS: Boys (age ≤17 years, n = 17 478) undergoing surgical exploration for TT were identified within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2010). Temporal trends in inpatient TT management (salvage surgery vs orchiectomy) and TL were examined using estimated annual percent change methodology. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for TL.

RESULTS: Teaching hospitals treated 90% of boys with NTT, compared with 55% with ATT (P < 0.001). Of boys with NTT, 85% lost their testis, compared with 35% with ATT (P < 0.001). Inpatient management of NTT declined during the study period, from 7.5/100 000 children in 1998 to 3/100 000 in 2010 (estimated annual percent change -4.95%; P < 0.001). The decrease was similar but less dramatic in ATT. TL patterns did not improve. In adjusted analyses, for NTT, orchiectomy was more likely at teaching hospitals. For ATT, orchiectomy was more likely in children with comorbidities (odds ratio 5.42; P = 0.045), Medicaid coverage or self-pay (P < 0.05) and weekday presentation (P = 0.001). Regional or racial disposition was not associated with TL.

CONCLUSIONS: There has been a gradual decrease in inpatient surgical treatment for both NTT and ATT, presumably as a result of increased outpatient and/or non-operative management of these children. Concerningly, TL patterns have not improved; targeted interventions such as parental and adolescent male health education may lead to timely recognition/intervention in children at-risk for ATT. We noted no regional/racial disparities in contrast to earlier studies.

Medical Subject Headings

Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Orchiectomy; Risk Factors; Salvage Therapy; Spermatic Cord Torsion; Time Factors

PubMed ID






First Page


Last Page