An evaluation of the timing of surgical complications following nephrectomy: data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP).
Sood A, Abdollah F, Sammon JD, Kapoor V, Rogers CG, Jeong W, Klett DE, Hanske J, Meyer CP, Peabody JO, Menon M, and Trinh QD. An evaluation of the timing of surgical complications following nephrectomy: data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). World J Urol 2015; 33(12):2031-2038.
World journal of urology
PURPOSE: The rates of complications following radical/partial nephrectomy (RN/PN) are well known; however, the data regarding timing are opaque. Accordingly, we sought to assess the median time-to-event for 19 principal postoperative complications within 30 days following surgery.
METHODS: Patients undergoing RN/PN were identified within the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005-2011). Primary endpoint was time-to-complication. Secondary endpoints included length-of-stay (LOS), re-intervention, re-admission and 30-day mortality. Multivariable regression models assessed the predictors for pre-/post-discharge complications and the effect of time-to-complication on secondary outcomes.
RESULTS: Overall, 3820 patients underwent nephrectomy (RN = 63.6 %). The overall complication rate was 16.8 %, and the median LOS was 4 days. The majority of major complications (88.1 %), including bleeding/transfusion, renal, septic, deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, pulmonary, cardiac and neurologic, occurred prior to discharge. Conversely, the relatively minor complications, including wound and urinary tract infections, occurred predominantly post-discharge (70.7 %). The median time to major complications was 3 versus 13 days for minor complications. In multivariable analyses, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.02, p < 0.001], American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥ 2 (p < 0.01) and PN (p < 0.001) were predictors of pre-discharge complications, while female gender (OR 1.67, p < 0.001), hypertension (OR 1.28, p = 0.007) and diabetes (OR 1.48, p < 0.001) were predictors of post-discharge complications. Creatinine ≥ 1.2 mg/dl and hematocrit < 30 increased (p < 0.01), whereas a minimally invasive approach decreased the odds (p < 0.05) for both pre-/post-discharge complications. For a given complication, time-to-complication did not affect the odds for mortality (p = 0.343) or re-intervention (p = 0.872).
CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one in six patients suffers a complication following RN/PN; major complications tend to occur early with the majority occurring pre-discharge. Knowledge regarding the timing and risk factors for complications may facilitate improved patient-physician communication, both at admission and at discharge.
Medical Subject Headings
Aged; Databases, Factual; Female; Humans; Kidney Neoplasms; Length of Stay; Male; Middle Aged; Nephrectomy; Quality Improvement; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; United States