30-day adverse event rates following penile prosthesis surgery: an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program based evaluation.

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Background: Commonly utilized as a third-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED) management, the penile prostheses have become a staple treatment for ED refractory to pharmacological interventions. There is however a paucity of data in the literature pertaining to short-term adverse outcomes following penile prosthesis surgery. We thus sought to leverage the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) to evaluate such outcomes within 30 days of surgery in these patients. We hypothesized that such data will lead to a more informed patient-physician consultation.

Methods: Relying on the ACS-NSQIP database [2005-2013], patients undergoing penile prosthesis placement were identified utilizing the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes: 54400, 54401, 54405, 54406, 54407, 54408, 54410, 54411, 54416 and 54417. Outcomes assessed included system-wise categorized complications, length-of-stay (LOS), and re-intervention, readmission and 30-day mortality rates. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze available data. Multivariate analysis could not be performed due to small sample size.

Results: Overall, 98 cases of patients who underwent surgery for penile prosthesis placements between the years 2005 and 2013 were reported by the ACS-NSQIP affiliated hospitals. The median age was 65 years (interquartile range, 58-70 years). The overall 30-day complication rate was 11.3% (n=11); 5 of the 11 complications were infectious in etiology, and three were a postoperative blood transfusion event. The median LOS was 1 day. One (1.0%) patient needed to return to the operating room, two patients (2.6%) were readmitted and there was one (1.0%) death within 30 days of the original surgery.

Conclusions: Surgery for penile prosthesis appears to be a safe operation despite the routinely advanced age of the patients requiring it. Complications in the immediate postoperative setting are usually infectious. This data can be used in the clinical setting for a more informed patient-physician discussion and patient expectation management.

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