Low Serum Albumin Correlates With Adverse Events Following Surgery for Male Urinary Incontinence: Analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project.

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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and male urethral sling placement (MUS), revision, and removal.

METHODS: We identified CPT codes of patients undergoing AUS and sling placement, revision, and removal in the American Colleague of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database (ACS NSQIP). Bivariate analysis was used to compare preoperative parameters against adverse events of interest (LOS>1, readmission, reoperation, other postoperative complications, and death). Variables that were significant or neared significance (p<0.1) in the univariate analysis were entered into multivariable logistic regression models. Multivariable models were used to estimate the probability of adverse events.

RESULTS: About 2792 patients underwent surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence in the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database from 2008 to 2016. Increased length of stay was the most common adverse event (12.7%), followed by other postoperative complications (4.9%), readmission (4%), reoperation (2.3%), and death (0.3%). We noted an association between perioperative adverse events and preoperative hypoalbuminemia. Patients with preoperative hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal preoperative serum albumin had an increase predicted probability of LOS >1 day (42% vs 10%), readmission (10% vs 4%), reoperation (6% vs 2%), other postoperative complications (18% vs 4%) after adjusting for other factors.

CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment for SUI is well tolerated with acceptable levels of perioperative adverse events. Low serum albumin (<3.5ng/dL) was associated with perioperative adverse events. These data may affect preoperative decision making and direct future quality improve efforts at the highest risk patients to help minimize perioperative morbidity and mortality.

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ePub ahead of print