Systematic Biopsy Does Not Contribute to Disease Upgrading in Patients Undergoing Targeted Biopsy for PI-RADS 5 Lesions Identified on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Course of Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer.

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OBJECTIVE: To compare the utility of the systematic 12-core prostate biopsy (SB) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted lesion biopsy (MRI-TB) vs MRI-TB alone in the diagnosis of high PI-RADS lesions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing MRI-TB + SB for suspicious MRI lesions were retrospectively reviewed. These patients had a previous prostate biopsy and were evaluated with MRI to assess the need for a repeat biopsy. Pathologic findings of MRI-TB combined with a SB were compared to those of the patients' previous SB. An upgrade was defined as an increase in the Gleason Score of any prior biopsy. A no-upgrade (NU) MRI-TB was defined as a MRI-TB that did not lead to disease upgrading when compared to SB.

RESULTS: A total of 148 patients were analyzed in this study. Of the 255 total lesions (247 lesions with PI-RADS ≥3), 141 were upgraded from the previous biopsy (55.3%). Of these, 104 were upgraded by the MRI-TB (40.8%), and 87 lesions were upgraded by the SB (34.1%). The MRI-TB had a NU rate of 26.2% for all lesions. On subanalysis, the NU rates of PI-RADS 3, 4, and 5 MRI-TBs were 39.3%, 21.2%, and 3.4%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The NU rate for the MRI-TB in a PIRADS-5 lesion is meager. Men with a PI-RADS 5 lesion may be safely managed with the MRI-TB alone without combining with SB. Men with PI-RADS 3 and 4 lesions should benefit from SB in addition to MRI-TB for accurate management of their disease.

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Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Biopsy, Needle; Contrast Media; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Middle Aged; Neoplasm Grading; Prostatic Neoplasms; Retrospective Studies; Watchful Waiting

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