A Systematic Review of the Role of Definitive Local Treatment in Patients with Clinically Lymph Node-positive Prostate Cancer.

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Eur Urol Oncol


CONTEXT: There is uncertainty regarding the oncologic effectiveness and the survival advantage of local treatment (LT) in men with clinically lymph node-positive (cN+) prostate cancer (PCa).

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the current literature comparing oncologic outcomes associated with the use of any form of LT for PCa patients with cN+ disease.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A computerized bibliographic search of the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed for all studies reporting comparative oncologic outcomes of LT±androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT alone. LT included both radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT). Using the methodology recommended by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we identified five nonrandomized comparative retrospective studies published between 1999 and 2018, which were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. A narrative review and risk-of-bias assessment were performed to determine the impact of LT on recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS).

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Four studies compared the use of RT±ADT versus ADT alone, whereas one study compared any form of LT±ADT versus ADT alone. Different statistical strategies were used in the included studies to account for baseline measured and unmeasured confounders. Overall, the use of RT and, generally speaking, any form of LT was associated with an OS as well as a CSS benefit over ADT alone, without any clear superiority shown either by RP±ADT or by RT±ADT.

CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review suggests an advantage in terms of both OS and CSS for men with cN+ PCa receiving LT. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low level of evidence of available reports.

PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed the studies that assessed the role of local treatment in men with prostate cancer and with clinical evidence of lymph node involvement at diagnosis. We found that local treatment was constantly associated with recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival benefits throughout the included studies.

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